Speaking of (1) the populace of females regarding reproductive ages (provided by the National Yardsathematical Institute)? (2) the newest term, gender, and class of each and every municipal mayor along with his/their choose display (about Electoral Services)? and you will (3) management info with the various other contraception disbursements from personal wellness service, and you can placebo fitness effects made about exact same management health information (male morbidity, and you will morbidities in the puerperium period).
I combined this type of data provide with the a data set of Chile’s 346 municipalities over 15 years, or 5,190 observations/documents. Some observations has actually lost steps in some symptoms. Also, brand new measure of refuted pills isn’t designed for 2009. I document bottom line statistics about after the point.
Here we follow the notation of Freyaldenhoven et al. (2018), where ?–1 = 0, so that our reference period is one year prior to adoption in each municipality. We are interested in the nine yearly leads and eight yearly lags of the policy change, where leads capture any prevailing trends prior to the reform in earlier versus later adopting municipalities, and lags show the change in health outcomes following EC pill availability. Given variation in reform timing, initial leads and lags capture differences in treatment status (treated vs. untreated), while later periods capture pure variation in timing. Year and municipal fixed effects ??? and ??? absorb time and municipal invariant factors, and standard errors are clustered by Chile’s 346 municipalities. As well as capturing any dynamic impacts of the reform (e.g., growing knowledge diffusion), specification (1) provides evidence in favor of parallel (pre)trends if we can reject that each ?j = 0 ? j 11 It is important to note that in all cases, EC Pill refers to free provision by the public health system. In Chile, following the passage of the EC pill laws, the pill was also sold at private pharmacies. Unlike public data, official data on EC pill usage in the private system are not available (Fernandez et al. 2016). Thus, all estimates refer to the impact of the public reform. Although we cannot formally assess the impact of private market provision without data on disbursements, if private provision fills gaps not met by the public health system “spilling over” to areas not yet treated by the public system, our estimates will understate the actual full effect of EC pill availability (Clarke 2019).
Specifically, all of our way of measuring EC tablet supply keeps 103 shed findings for ages in which municipalities did not provide information about the tablet disbursement position
where EC Pillct is a binary variable indicating that the EC pill is available in municipality c and time t. Specifically, such models take care of recent critiques that 321chat SeznamovacГ aplikace single-coefficient models may be biased if effects are heterogeneous over time (Goodman-Bacon 2018). However, recent advances by de Chaise) propose an estimator to avoid issues relating to heterogeneous impacts over time and time-varying adoption of policies. We thus follow their proposed DIDM estimator in line with Eq. (2) (full details of this method are included in the online Appendix C). 12 This estimator consists of comparing outcomes between all units that change their EC pill status with those that have not yet changed, around the time that the policy change occurs. This is implemented following de Chaise), where we can observe both immediate changes and changes over the following two years given the variation in treatment adoption. In addition, we estimate mirrored leads as placebo tests, which implement the same comparisons between changing and unchanging units, but in periods entirely before treatment is adopted. Besides allowing for a single summary estimate, this method offers the benefit that all identification is drawn off the time period in which the staggered adoption of the EC pill occurred. We consistently conduct inference using a block-bootstrap procedure allowing for within-municipality correlations over time. We also explore one specification where EC Pillct is replaced with Pill Rejectedct, indicating whether each municipality refused to disburse requested EC pills in a given year.